MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Corrected Reflectance (True Color)

True-color imagery uses MODIS Bands 1, 4, and 3, respectively corresponding to the red, green, and blue range of the light spectrum, are assigned to the red, green, and blue channels of a digital image. These images are called true-color or natural color because this combination of wavelengths is similar to what the human eye would see.



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MODIS (Terra) Corrected Reflectance (bands 3,6,7)

The 3-6-7 composite assigns Bands 3, 6, and 7 to the red, green, and blue components of a digital image. This combination is good for revealing snow and ice because they are very reflective in the visible part of the spectrum, and very absorbent in Bands 6 and 7, which are a part of the spectrum called the short-wave infrared, or SWIR.





(---To read more use down arrow key---)

Snow and Ice
Since the only visible light used in these images (Band 3) is assigned to red, snow and ice appear bright red. The more ice, the stronger the absorption in the SWIR bands, and the more red the color. Thick ice and snow appear vivid red (or red-orange), while small ice crystals in high-level clouds will appear reddish-orange or peach.

Vegetation
Vegetation is absorbent in Band 3 and Band 7, but reflective in Band 6, and so will appear greenish in this band combination. Bare soil will appear bright cyan in the image since it much more reflective in Band 6 and Band 7 than Band 3.

Water
Liquid water on the ground will be very dark since it absorbs in the red and the SWIR, but small liquid water drops in clouds scatter light equally in both the visible and the SWIR, and will therefore appear white. Sediments in water appear dark red.



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Corrected Reflectance (bands 7,2,1)

In this composite, MODIS Bands 7, 2, and 1, are assigned to the red, green, and blue portions of the digital image. This combination is most useful for identifying burn scars.







(---To read more use down arrow key---)

Vegetation and bare ground
Vegetation is very reflective in the near infrared (Band 2), and absorbent in Band 1 and Band 7. Assigning that band to green means even the smallest hint of vegetation will appear bright green in the image. Naturally bare soil, like a desert, is reflective in all bands used in this image, but more so in the SWIR (Band 7, red) and so soils will often have a pinkish tinge.

Burned areas
If vegetation burns, bare soil in the area will become exposed. Band 1 slightly increases usually, but that may be offset by the presence of black carbon residue. The near infrared (Band 2) will become darker, and Band 7 becomes more reflective. When assigned to red in the image, Band 7 will show burn scars as deep or bright red, depending on the type of vegetation burned, the amount of residue, or the completeness of the burn.

Water
As with the 3-6-7 composite, water will appear black. Sediments in water appear dark blue.

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AMSR_E Rain Rate(Day)



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AMSR_E Rain Rate(Night)



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Fires Last 24 Hours



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Fires Last 48 Hours(Night)



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SEDAC Population Density

SEDAC Population Density Legend

Acknowledgement: Population density data are provided by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), operated by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University under Contract NNG08HZ11C.

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Administration Boundaries



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Land Surface Reflectance (True Color)



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MODIS (Terra) Land Surface Reflectance (bands 3,6,7)



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Land Surface Reflectance (bands 7,2,1)



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Land Surface Reflectance (bands 1,2,1)



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) LSR (bands 1,2)



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Brightness Temp.(band 31)



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Aerosol Optical Depth

MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth at 0.55 µm is reported using two independent dark surface algorithms over both Ocean (best) and Land (corrected) with best quality data (QA Confidence Flag = 3). The retrieval method uses MODIS Bands 1-7 plus Band 26 (cirrus detection) to report the extinction AOD due to the combined effects of absorption and scattering. This combined ocean/land algorithm takes advantage of the MODIS wide spectral range and high spatial resolution with daily global coverage (e.g., 500m resolution at 0.47μm and 2.12μm; 250m resolution at 0.66μm and 0.86μm; 1 km resolution at 1.38μm). These unique MODIS characteristics allow excellent cloud rejection while maintaining high statistics of cloud free pixels. Spectral and spatial characteristics are combined to report estimated AOD at 10km resolution. The method is not applied over sunglint ocean regions or bright (desert) land regions. Note that there is a complimentary Deep Blue Algorithm for bright land retrievals.
(Reference:http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/_docs/ATBD_MOD04_C005_rev2.pdf)

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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Water Vapor

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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Sea Ice Extent



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Fractional Snow Cover



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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Cloud Top Pressure(5km)

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MODIS (Terra/Aqua) Cloud Top Temp(5km)

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AIRS Precipitation Estimate


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AIRS NRT False Color Map


This is AIRS Near-Real-Time 3-component (RGB) composite image. The source data type is AIRVBRAD_NRT, where three bands are taken from the variable radiances: band3=0.8, band2=0.6, and band1=0.4 microns. Correspondingly, they form the red, green, and blue colors. Thus, since band3 is near-infrared, the vegetation appears in red colors, and the image is categorized as false-color. The global map is produced at 3-km resolution. The map is refreshed every 45 minutes, and the map is about 2 hours behind the real time.

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AIRS NRT Carbon Monoxide (CO)

This is AIRS Near-Real-Time Total Column Carbon Monoxide (CO), in volume mixing ratio units of parts per billion, (ppb). The source data type is AIRX2RET_NRT, where the data are in the variable CO_total_column. Originally, these data are in molecules/cm^2, but here are converted to (ppb). The global map is produced at 45-km resolution. The map is refreshed every 45 minutes, and the map is about 2 hours behind the real time.

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AIRS NRT BT_diff_SO2

This is AIRS Near-Real-Time brightness temperature difference BT(1361.44 cm-1)- BT(1433.06 cm-1), in Kelvins (K), which can indicate SO2 release from volcanoes. Differences under -6 K have likely volcanic SO2. The source data type is AIRIBQAP_NRT, where the indicator is in the variable BT_diff_SO2. The global map is produced at 10-km resolution. The map is refreshed every 45 minutes, and the map is about 2 hours behind the real time.

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AIRS Dust Score

This is AIRS Near-Real-Time Dust Score. Dust score values larger than 360 are dust events with increasingly larger likelihood. Thus only values above 360 are shown. The source data type is AIRIBQAP_NRT, where the data are in the variable dust_score. The global map is produced at 10-km resolution. The map is refreshed every 45 minutes, and the map is about 2 hours behind the real time.

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OMI Aerosol Optical Depth

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Near-UV Aerosol Absorption and Extinction Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo (OMAERUV) daily composite images for aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) at 354, 388 and 500 nm. AOD is a dimensionless measure of the extinction of light by aerosols due to the combined effect of scattering and absorption, while AAOD is that due to aerosol absorption only. For environments where cloud free conditions prevail the AOD can be reliably retrieved. Cloud interference with satellite retrieval is minimal over arid and semi-arid regions where dust aerosols are commonly present. Clear skies are also frequent in areas of seasonal biomass burning and forest fires in the vicinity of the sources. As the plumes of dust and smoke aerosols drift away from their source regions, they mixed with clouds and the OMAERUV AOD retrieval becomes very challenging. The Level 2 data is filtered for Solar Zenith Angle less than 84.0 for for the row anomaly using the row anomaly . The map is refreshed every 100 minutes and the map is about 3 hours behind the real time.

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OMI SO2 Planetary Boundary Layer

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column (OMSO2) daily composite images of one of the 4 different estimates of the column density of SO2, PBL (obtained by making different assumptions about the vertical distribution of the SO2). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) SO2 column (PBL), corresponding to center of mass altitude (CMA) of 0.9 km. Note that OMI becomes more sensitive to SO2 above clouds and snow/ice, and less sensitive to SO2 below clouds. The image data is composed by gridding the available Level 2 data for a day into ¼ degree by ¼ degree grid and when the Solar Zenith Angle is less than 84.0 degrees Latitude. When pixels overlaps the mean path length is used to choose the best pixel. In addition all data is filtered for the row anomaly. Image data is provided in Dobson Units .

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OMI Lower tropospheric SO2 column

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column (OMSO2) daily composite images of one of the 4 different estimates of the column density of SO2, TRL (obtained by making different assumptions about the vertical distribution of the SO2). Lower tropospheric SO2 column (TRL), corresponding to CMA of 2.5 km. Note that OMI becomes more sensitive to SO2 above clouds and snow/ice, and less sensitive to SO2 below clouds. The image data is composed by gridding the available Level 2 data for a day into ¼ degree by ¼ degree grid and when the Solar Zenith Angle is less than 84.0 degrees Latitude. When pixels overlaps the mean path length is used to choose the best pixel. In addition all data is filtered for the row anomaly. Image data is provided in Dobson Units .

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OMI Middle tropospheric SO2 column

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column (OMSO2) daily composite images of one of the 4 different estimates of the column density of SO2, TRM (obtained by making different assumptions about the vertical distribution of the SO2). Middle tropospheric SO2 column, (TRM), usually produced by volcanic degassing, corresponding to CMA of 7.5 km. Note that OMI becomes more sensitive to SO2 above clouds and snow/ice, and less sensitive to SO2 below clouds. The image data is composed by gridding the available Level 2 data for a day into ¼ degree by ¼ degree grid and when the Solar Zenith Angle is less than 84.0 degrees Latitude. When pixels overlaps the mean path length is used to choose the best pixel. In addition all data is filtered for the row anomaly. Image data is provided in Dobson Units .

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OMI Upper tropospheric and Stratospheric SO2 column

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column (OMSO2) daily composite images of one of the 4 different estimates of the column density of SO2, STL (obtained by making different assumptions about the vertical distribution of the SO2). Upper tropospheric and Stratospheric SO2 column (STL), usually produced by explosive volcanic eruption, corresponding to CMA of 17 km. Note that OMI becomes more sensitive to SO2 above clouds and snow/ice, and less sensitive to SO2 below clouds. The image data is composed by gridding the available Level 2 data for a day into ¼ degree by ¼ degree grid and when the Solar Zenith Angle is less than 84.0 degrees Latitude. When pixels overlaps the mean path length is used to choose the best pixel. In addition all data is filtered for the row anomaly. Image data is provided in Dobson Units .

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OMI Aerosol Index

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Near-UV Aerosol Absorption and Extinction Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo (OMAERUV) daily composite images for the UV aerosol index (UVAI) at 354, 388 and 500 nm. The UVAI has become an invaluable tool for tracking long-range transport of absorbing aerosols (smoke and dust) throughout the globe, even when the aerosols are over clouds. The Level 2 data is filtered for Solar Zenith Angle less than 84.0 for for the row anomaly using the row anomaly . The map is refreshed every 100 minutes and the map is about 3 hours behind the real time.

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OMI Cloud Pressure

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction, Raman Scattering Algorithm (OMCLDRR) daily composite image of CloudPressureO3. OMCLDRR retrieves effective cloud pressures from an amount of filling in of Fraunhofer lines caused by rotational Raman scattering in the atmosphere. OMCLDRR cloud pressure is “effective,” meaning that the cloud pressure may not represent the true physical cloud-top pressure (especially in the case of multiple cloud layers). The Level 2 data is produced pole-to-pole sunlit portion of a single orbit that is 2600 km wide in the cross-track direction and consists of 60 ground pixels across the track . The image data is composed by gridding the available Level 2 data for a day into ¼ degree by ¼ degree grid. When pixels overlaps the mean path length is used to choose the best pixel. In addition all data is filtered for the row anomaly. Image data is provided in hPa .

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OMI Absorbing Aerosol Optical Depth

This is a gridded Level-2 OMI/Aura Near-UV Aerosol Absorption and Extinction Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo (OMAERUV) daily composite images for aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) at 354, 388 and 500 nm. AOD is a dimensionless measure of the extinction of light by aerosols due to the combined effect of scattering and absorption, while AAOD is that due to aerosol absorption only. The AAOD is the most reliable quantitative OMAERUV aerosol parameter since AAOD is insensitive to clouds. The Level 2 data is filtered for Solar Zenith Angle less than 84.0 for for the row anomaly using the row anomaly . The map is refreshed every 100 minutes and the map is about 3 hours behind the real time.

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